Clomid is the most popular medication taken by women to treat infertility, and it works by stimulating the increase in the amount of those hormones that boost the release and growth of mature eggs or process of ovulation. Clomiphene Citrate is its active ingredient, and it has anti-estrogen action to solve female problems with getting pregnant by stimulating their proper ovarian function. Nowadays, patients can find a variety of Clomid analogs that contain the same active ingredient, such as Beclom, Clomifen, Clostil, Klomen, Fertil, Dufine, Genoclom, Hete, Lomifen, Ofertil, Prolifen, Serpafar and many others.

Indications for Clomid Use

This medicine is prescribed and used to treat infertility and relevant conditions, such as:

  • Ovulation induction or anovulatory infertility;
  • Amenorrhea (dis-gonadotropic form);
  • Dysfunctional metrorrhagia;
  • Secondary amenorrhea;
  • Post-contraception amenorrhea;
  • Polycystic ovarian syndrome (Stein-Leventhal syndrome);
  • Galactorrhea (on the background of the pituitary tumor);
  • Chiari-Frommel syndrome;
  • Oligospermia;
  • Disorders of the pituitary gonadotrophic function;
  • Androgen deficiency.

How Does It Work?

Clomid functions as an effective anti-estrogen that tricks the human brain into thinking that estrogen levels in the body are quite low, and it achieves this goal by binding to special estrogen receptors and blocking the ability of this hormone to bind to these receptors. That’s why the brain starts thinking that current estrogen levels are quite low and produces more estrogens to increase the release of FSH and LH by the pituitary gland. These are hormones involved in the development of mature eggs and stimulation of ovulation by increasing estradiol concentration in the blood.

How to Use Clomid Properly

Most patients start their treatment with low dosage, which is 50 mg or 1 pill of Clomid taken on a daily basis for 5 days, but this dose can be increased by those patients who don’t ovulate. If doctors need to achieve progestin-induced bleeding, this regimen must be started around the fifth day of women’s cycle. If they achieve ovulation, there is no need to increase this initial dose of Clomid, but if it doesn’t appear after the first course of this treatment, patients start taking 100 mg or 2 tablets for 5 days. Then this therapy can be continued for the third course that involves the intake of 150 mg, and if ovulation doesn’t happen, further use of Clomid is not recommended. In general, this medicine is not advised for longer than 6 cycles.

Expected Side Effects

There are certain side effects associated with the intake of Clomid, including stomach ulcers, breast tenderness, hot flashes, bloating, dizziness, mild headaches, pelvic fullness and some others. Patients should inform their doctors about any unusual symptoms that they experience while undergoing this treatment. In rare cases, they may develop such serious adverse effects as mood and mental changes and irregular vaginal bleeding. Different vision changes, such as seeing spots and blurred visions, may happen when using Clomid, especially if patients are exposed to bright light, but this side effect often goes away very fast. However, if they have eye pain and vision problems, they need to get immediate medical help.

This medicine causes OHSS, and it’s a health condition that results in building up fluid in the chest, stomach and heart zones. If patients notice such signs as severe swelling and pain in their pelvic area, vomiting, nausea, sudden weight gain, shortness of breath, chest pain and a few others, they need to call their doctors at once. Allergic reactions to Clomid are unlikely, but patients should watch for itching, swelling, rash, difficulty breathing and similar symptoms.

Important Precautions

Before starting this treatment, patients need to inform their doctors about possible allergic reactions and such health conditions as liver problems, abnormal vaginal bleeding, enlarged ovaries, ovarian cysts, pituitary tumor, adrenal gland problems, thyroid and uterus complications, polycystic ovary syndrome and some others. The use of Clomid may result in dizziness, so patients shouldn’t do activities that require their full alertness.

Possible Drug Interactions

There are only a few known medications that potentially interact with Clomid and similar drugs, and they change the way it works while increasing the risk of having severe adverse effects. Such meds as Gonadorelin, Ospemifene, Tagretin, Bexarotene and Osphera shouldn’t be taken when undergoing this treatment to avoid negative results and reduced effectiveness.